It is said that perception can be explained as a mix of illusion and reality
and is often a subjective belief based on one's own personal experience.
So when perception is used as the sole base in a model that measures corruption,
the results can be scientifically inaccurate.
Yet, the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) model as devised by Transparency International (TI)
is one such model that is based quite on peoples' perceptions and without
the support of hard empirical data [1c].
It is therefore not surprising to find that this CPI model is sometimes prone to fail.
In fact, despite the various reasons as suggested by Galtung (2005) as to how
unreliable this CPI is and how this CPI has been improperly used by the press
"on a daily basis" (Galtung, 2005), there are still a number of more basic questions
yet to be answered, and these include: "Why would there be such kind of perception?"
Or, "Would a change of attitude or perception in corruption alter the situation
and hence prevent or help fight corruption in a particular country?"
To answer the first question, we need to understand that perception can be a
result of the attitude of the people (Prinz & Hommel, 2002),
and so to understand what form this attitude, we need to make use of the definition
of "attitude" from Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia (1964): "Attitude is a complex of
personal characteristics, norms, values, feelings, ideas and meanings that determines
how one behaves in a specific situation."
So what exactly is this "complex?" A further elaboration of this definition by
Zonneveld (2002) gives a composition of the following three aspects:
Knowledge: knowing and understanding what behavior fits in a specific
situation, and why;
Behavior: being able to exhibit the desired, appropriate behavior;
Emotions: being aware of the feelings and emotions that underlie the behavior.
With the three "components of attitude" in hand, we will try to move on to
some other relevant economic and social statistics that could be related to
these components and hence created the "state of reality by changing their perceptions"
from a cognitive perspective (Rosenblatt, 1962). The idea of the following analysis
is to see if such a "state of reality," which is a result of the people's perspective,
has anything to do with the change of attitude (in terms of knowledge and behavior)
and hence the making of corruption a low gain and high risk crime.
Note 1c: According to Transparency International, "it is difficult to base comparative statements on the levels of corruption
in different countries on hard empirical data, e.g. by comparing the number of prosecutions or court cases. Such
cross-country data does not reflect actual levels of corruption; rather it highlights the quality of prosecutors, courts
and/or the media in exposing corruption. The only method of compiling comparative data is therefore to build on the
experience and perceptions of those who are most directly confronted with the realities of corruption in a country."
For details, see http://www.transparency.org/cpi/2004/cpi2004_faq.en.html
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For those you who don't have time
to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island
disputes (links above), you may find the following video,
"The economic impact of a war between Japan and China",
"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire."
John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme
I am proud to announce that
the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates
from Usman Khurshid's Technize.net.
Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment
of Windows and Linux platforms.
He likes to study about the
latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.
Oh, please do not get me wrong.
This new section is not about computers, electronics or
any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing
a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication
from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA,
from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for
over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by
some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or
envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of
them eventually come into practice? Could there be
some insights we could possibly derive, from
the linguistics perspective?
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