Commentary Logo
Japan Island disputes in Southeast Asia    World War III Alarm Anti-Islam video and anti-US sentiment    Skull Say no to brainwashing

       peace and anti-war Israel Iran strike imminent    sanctions as a result of nuclear tests Sanctions on Iran and workarounds    black lightning bolt India's massive blackout

Snapshots of news
Gearheads and mastheads
SHORTCUT TO MAIN SECTIONS & ARTICLES
Home  •  About this site  •  How did we once fight corruption in colonial Hong Kong?
 •  Historical US administrative thoughts  •  USA versus colonial Hong Kong
 •  Anti-corruption review of Nigeria  •  Procurement monitoring in Nigeria
 •  Syndicated news  •  Usman's blog  •  Anti-graft news  •  Socialist news

 Sunday, December 4 2016 1:41am Hongkong Time

SKIP TO     Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4

Anti-corruption: An evaluation of strategies, legislations and systems in Nigeria

Iliyasu Buba Gashinbaki

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

Nigeria Political Map (Free) (c) Magellan Geographix
Nigeria Political Map © Magellan Geographix

Synopsis

No one is sure when and where corruption first started in Nigeria. But Nigerian scholars like B. C. Osisioma, Ejiofor, Chinu Achebe, and Wole Soyinka amongst host of others had a consensus view that, the cradle of corruption in Nigeria was colonialism. To buttress this view, they argued that, in 1914 the British colonial powers amalgamated vast territories of separate and distinct ethnic nationalities, kingdoms and caliphates, which have diverse cultural, religious and social values into one single corporate entity called Nigeria. Since then, the "core ideology" of nationhood which is "service delivery for the common good" of the society (Nigeria) became a mirage. When the colonial powers left in 1960, the little cohesion force of nationalism and independence struggle that binds us together began to fall apart. Thus, ethnic, religious and regional divides impregnated with corruption tendencies surreptitiously crept into the system.

Apart from colonial influence, further studies on Nigeria have revealed that there seem to be a close link between "natural resource wealth" and "corruption". The correlation is derived from the universal believe that "scarcity leads to invention" and "abundance leads to abuse". In Nigeria, Oil Revenue accounts for 95% of the foreign exchange earnings, in addition to large untapped potentials of solid minerals, agriculture, and tourism. Besides, the economy is bigger and stronger than all the other 14 countries within the West African sub-region put together. Thus, making it the second largest economy in Africa with a population of about 130 million people. The resultant effect of this was that government assumed the dominant role as producer and controller in the economy, or produced "perverse incentives" or created inefficiencies and waste. In the context of an oil producing economy (with huge rents from oil as easy source of government revenue), a culture of rent-seeking quickly developed. Invariably, Government became an automatic instrument for instant acquisition of wealth and therefore distorted the incentives and ideals for handwork in the whole society. Government being the major source of patronage and rent-seeking, the fight for public office became a matter of life and death and corruption became a cultural symbol.

Therefore, the above inherited legacies of corruption coupled with military dictatorship which dominated much of Nigeria's political history since independence in 1960, eventually eroded the rule of law and brought high incidence of abuse of power and public office. As a result, even regulatory and enforcement institutions including the judiciary became weakened and vulnerable to corrupt practices. This led to massive public corruption and rampant corporate failures (especially bank failures in the late 1980s and early 1990s). There was also an upsurge in crime particularly, advance fee Fraud, Bank frauds, drug trafficking and money laundering - creating a situation of insecurity not only for lives and property but also for investment.

Relative to its own history, and in comparison with other countries in Asia, especially Pakistan and Indonesia; economic development over the decades has been quite disappointing. According to UNDP 2004 Human Development Report, "as at 2000, Nigeria had earned approximately $300 billion from oil exports since the mid 1970s, but its per capita income was 20% less than the 1975 level, and the country has become so heavily indebted (external and domestic debt amounts to about 70 percent of GDP) that it has serious difficulty servicing existing debt". It is evident therefore that, Nigeria is not only poor; it also experiencing some forms of de-capitalization (human and financial). From the foregoing it easy to understand why, the public sector is characterized by pension crisis, arrears of salaries of civil servants, huge debts to government contractors and suppliers of goods and services, a boom and burst cycle of revenue and expenditure, misallocation and excessive mismanagement of resources, etc. Besides the IMF/World Bank Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) policy also devalued the Naira, which eroded the purchasing power of the people. All these put together created a breeding ground for corruption to become a monumental calamity to the country.

SKIP TO     Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4



Commentary and reflection pages by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA

  Main • Commentary   Special Foci • Syndicated News | Corruption | Socialism | GuanXi

  Health Related • Traditional Chinese Medicine   Others • OXLL


© 1997-2014 The Commentary, Office of Dr Raymond Cheng. All rights reserved. Copyright of selected news articles, the headlines and logos belongs to the respective entities. Read disclaimer

Digital platform powered by Wyith Limited, Wyith Institute. Wyith Limited and Wyith Institute are associated businesses operated by the Office of Dr Raymond Cheng • Dr Raymond Cheng & Partners Ltd and The Commentary Ltd.

SHORTCUT TO MAIN SECTIONS & ARTICLES
Home  •  About this site  •  How did we once fight corruption in colonial Hong Kong?
 •  Historical US administrative thoughts  •  USA versus colonial Hong Kong
 •  Anti-corruption review of Nigeria  •  Procurement monitoring in Nigeria
 •  Syndicated news  •  Usman's blog  •  Anti-graft news  •  Socialist news

Contact the editor at raymond {dot} cheng {at} kellogg {dot} oxon {dot} org

RESERVED SECTION FOR MEMBERS
The RendezvousBuildersCommentatorsContributorsReadersResearchers
Reflection Pages • Miscellaneous Stuff
The difference between instant evaluation and improving recognition – November 20
Freddy Krueger revisited: Politically correct education? – October 23
From the evaluator's perspective: Justified conclusions and decisions – October 8
Online and distance-learning degrees from the evaluator's perspective – September 25
The moment fake degrees turned recognized and appraised – September 9

Photo credits for top title bar, from left to right: Iza H (Work), Lukasz Gumowski (Blue balls), Marcin Bania (Smiling and naked), Lautaro Gonda (Milan station), Jan Abt (Girl taking a picture), Daniel Tang (Hot switch), Barbara Henry (Moriah reading), Ralf Herrmann (Checkmate II), Marko Roeper (Led #4), Ian Russell (Girl in downtown LA).
Note: Animated GIF graphics and clipart obtained from amazing-animations.com, gifs.net, findicons.com, clker.com and sevenoaksart.co.uk. Sketches, cartoons and other handdrawings courtesy of Alice-the-Artist.

Special Alert! This is *NOT* the American Jewish Committee's Commentary Magazine! Special notice! This is not the American Jewish Committee's Commentary Magazine nor are we in any way affiliated with them. To visit AJC's magazine, please go to commentarymagazine.com instead, thank you for your attention.
Memo with pin Technical memos for members
Receiving using Gmail | Sending using Gmail
0x800ccc0e | 0x800ccc19 | 0x800ccc79

This site is best viewed with Microsoft® Internet Explorer 6.0 or above, minimum 1024x768 16M color-depth resolution. The Commentary Group and its personnel do not endorse external sites and are not responsible for the content of these websites. All external sites will open in a new browser window.




 
COUNT ON THE STATISTICS  100% Towels (c) Daniel Chittka
Photo © Daniel Chittka

This new section contains some interesting statistics in bribe and corruption, please check back for more as we pile up our numbers!

It's statistics time!  Using n-gram: kickback, graft, bribe and corruption - Comparison of their historical occurrences from 1810 to 2009 A.D.

  The word guanxi (collocation) and meanings of bribe: Deeply rooted, disgusting, sad endings

LATEST STUFF TO PONDER UPON
Looking for a good book (c) Doug Logan
Photo © Doug Logan
tagged by area of interestBY AREA OF INTEREST
Trends
Pragmatics: Politeness trends from the historical perspective of global trade
Computer mediated communications: Social network – Came riding the waves of amazing coincidences
Analysis
Language acquisition:
A critique on "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies"

Grammatical analysis: "When a linguist stumbled upon a Buttonwood"
Lexicon and the corpus: "John Sinclair's lexical items – an introduction"
tagged by regionBY REGION • Anything AsiaUS Presence in Asia
Communist ChinaNationalist TaiwanHong Kong and MacauJapanKoreaSingaporeMalaysiaPhilippinesPakistanIndiaAfghanistanVietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and MyanmarTimor-Leste and IndonesiaMongoliaNew Zealand and Australia
tagged by topicsBY TOPIC • BiofuelRhino and elephant poachingAmerican movies hit China marketChina Internet censorshipChina's outward FDI opportunitiesGlobal rice yield
ISLAND DISPUTES – FROM A DISTANCE
Island disputes in Southeast Asia | Senkakus-Diaoyu and historical findings | Dokdo-Takeshima | Spratly, Paracel, Scarborough | Kurils

For those you who don't have time to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island disputes (links above), you may find the following video, "The economic impact of a war between Japan and China", very enlightening.



© Minute MBA: More from onlinemba.com

Free Pussy Riot!
Free Pussy Riot!

Photo © Igor Mukhin, retrieved from Wikipedia

"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire." John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme

 More from Amnesty InternationalFree Pussy Riot



How it started – Pussy Riot Prayers, February 2012

PUSSY RIOT CHRONOLOGY 2012
08/17 Pussy Riot imprisoned on hooliganism charges
08/17 The only professionals in sight
08/19 Pussy Riot protesters arrested in Marseille
08/20 NZ PM – Sentence 'disproportionate'
08/20 Pussy Riot fear their kids being put in care
08/22 German supporters face criminal charges
08/22 Pussy Riot – it's carefully calibrated
08/23 Russian church-state corruption unveiled
08/23 Putin's secret weapon: The Orthodox faithful
08/24 Putin-nominated watchdog slams convictions
08/31 'Pussy Riot ritual killing', man detained
09/03 Orthodox deacon speaks over verdict
09/06 Putin denies part in 'Pussy Riot case'
09/10 Pussy Riot benefit concert draws 1,000
09/10 Gorbachev says verdict "disproportionate"
09/19 Punk group to transfer to remote penal colony
09/21 Aung San calls on Moscow to release RP
10/01 Sentence appeal delayed until Oct 10
10/10 Katya freed, 2 years for Nadya and Masha
10/16 Masha and Nadya sent to remote labor prison



BBC • Pussy Riot women begin life in prison

11/16 Merkel challanges Putin on imprisonment
11/22 Maria Alekhina transferred to solitary cell
11/28 Tolokonnikova's appeal case goes to court
12/24 Extremist videos appeal adjourned

PUSSY RIOT CHRONOLOGY 2013
01/15 Masha's sentence deferment denied
02/01 PR civil claim granted right to appeal
02/07 Pussy Riot files complaint with ECHR
03/06 Ombudsman asks court to overturn verdict
03/08 Protesters detained in Moscow
04/13 PR gets reprimand: parole problematic
04/21 PR defense seeks abolition of conviction
07/26 Parole denied, PR remains defiant



The Knife supporting PR at Pukkelpop

08/17 Against verdict on PR – Day of Solidarity
08/23 PR seeks mitigation of remaining sentence
GLUCK ON SOCIALISM AND CHINA Asia (c) Robert Churchill
Photo © Robert Churchill

Professor Sidney Gluck (c) Sandi BachomI am honored to have obtained Professor Sidney Gluck's (right) permission to allow me to repost here some of his work and interview related to China and socialism. Professor Gluck is professor emertius at the New School University in New York. A classical Marxist, Gluck has been studying China for 60 years in history and modern development. He has lectured all over the U.S. and still welcomes engagement at the age of 94 – photo © Sandi Bachom

FEATURED ARTICLES

TECHNOLOGY BLOG BY USMAN KHURSHID
Usman Khurshid on Mike McCune's HD Monitor with Paths Technize.net logo with Maartje van Caspel's Public Space
I am proud to announce that the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates from Usman Khurshid's Technize.net. Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment of Windows and Linux platforms. He likes to study about the latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.

Click here to read Usman's tech blog
Subscribe to RSS feed
Photo © Usman Khurshid, Mike McCune, Maartje van Caspel
COMING 2014 – COMPUTING CORPUS Active Network Hub (c) Phil Sigin-Lavdanski
Photo © Phil Sigin-Lavdanski

Oh, please do not get me wrong. This new section is not about computers, electronics or any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA, from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of them eventually come into practice? Could there be some insights we could possibly derive, from the linguistics perspective?

IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

This website is published and designed by
Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA and reflects only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. It does not represent the views and opinions of his firm, employer(s), students, etc., and is not in any way sponsored or endorsed by any other thrid parties. Click here to read my full disclaimer
SHARE THIS WEBSITE WITH SOCIAL MEDIA

Share on Twitter  Add to Facebook  Share on LinkedIn  +1 on Google