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 Thursday, July 19 2018 7:36am Hongkong Time

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How did Chinese history evolve to that point and, more specifically, when did direct US-China relations begin and what has been its role?

In 1945, during the Civil War in China (that continued after the defeat of Japan, as the Kuomintang [3] retreated towards Taiwan), the United States threatened naval intervention which allowed for defacto occupation of Taiwan by Chiang Kai Shek's remnants of the defeated National Army forces.

It is common knowledge that China was subjected to European imperialism, particularly the British during the 19th century. During the Boxer Rebellion [4] in 1900 and the latter part of the previous century, the United States, for the first time, took part in the imperialist domination of China when it acted as arbiter to establish extraterritorial rights for the occupying powers which never included the USA.

Early in the 20th century (1910s) Sun Yat Sen [5] led the first democratic revolution ending Chinese dynastic rule and challenging extraterritorial rights. However, in 1914 the world became embroiled in an inter-imperialist World War. The outcome shifted the interests of capitalistic imperialism to the suppression of "proletarian" revolutions in Eastern Europe, of particular importance in Germany and in Russia where following four years of civil war, the USSR was established. The Russian Revolution and its socialist, humanistic promise impressed Sun Yat Sen, who invited the fledgling Chinese Communist Party to join in the Kuomintang as the embodiment of a democratic coalition. But Sun Yat Sen died shortly thereafter. In 1927 Chiang Kai Shek split the Kuomintang and forced the Communists into the Great March [6] to the West where they formed a new base supported by the peasants and loyal workers from the East. They formed a Red Army for defense during the 1930s when the Japanese then invaded Korea and China.

During World War II, General Stillwell was sent to train the anti-Japanese armed forces. Not only were nationalist Kuomintang army units trained, but in the Communist controlled areas the Eighth Route Army was formed. The nationalist army dragged its feet in the war against Japan. It maneuvered into a confrontation with the Eighth Route Army. Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the Communists captured Shiang Kai Shek; but were persuaded by Stalin to free him in a compromise in which he promised to prosecute the war against the Japanese, a promise he broke and precipitated an all out civil war between the National Armies and the two Communist armies -- the Red Army and the Eighth Route Army. This was truly a historic form of civil war between forces representing two main directions for the Chinese nation -- a "bourgeois" and a "proletarian" controlled state (capitalist vs. socialist). Chiang Kai Shek retreated taking many of the national treasures to the islands of Quemoy and Matsu in the Taiwan Straits. The Red Armies, in pursuit, were ready to launch a naval attack on the islands from the mainland before he could move to Formosa (Taiwan).

From a non-partisan, objective point of view, the US, by threatening to intervene in a Civil War with naval action against the Red Army's pursuit, was an interference in the internal affairs of a country. With tensions mounting in the USA over US involvement in an East Asian conflict, in the weeks before Easter 1945, a movement developed against escalation into an international war that had nothing to do with the defeat of Hitler and Hirohito. The writer, in fact, organized a "LIVE AND LET LIVE" movement among religious and public leaders, prominent educators and businessmen issuing a statement that appeared in advertisements in the East and West of the USA:

In this moment of Easter - Passover rejoicing, when all peoples of the Judaeo-Christian faiths rededicate themselves to the hope, freedom and new life inherent in all faiths, we pause to consider the impasse in our country's foreign policy and seek through divine guidance and deep conscience to find the means to avert the out-break of war. The horrible prospect of atomic warfare made possible by man's mastery of the infinite forces of nature has brought us to the era when men must find the way to solve even the most difficult international problems through negotiation and compromise.

We, therefore, urge upon our government a re-evaluation of our total foreign policy to bring it into focus with a changing world. We are moving out of the era of imperialistic colonialism into one in which man has found man over the entire surface of the earth. We are our brothers' brothers.

For the first time in the history of US-China relations, a seven-point program was annunciated for peaceful coexistence between our countries. We summarize the seven points.

  1. That our government recognizes Quemoy and Matsu to be a part of Mainland China.
  2. That we adopt a policy of submitting the issue of the permanent status of Formosa and the Pescadores to the United Nations.
  3. That our government negotiate informally with the Government of the People's Republic of China.
  4. That we put an end to "sabre-rattling" in the Far East.
  5. That our government look with sympathy on the efforts of all economically underdeveloped countries .
  6. That we take every step necessary to bring about an early Four-Power conference ... to settle differences.
  7. That our government takes the initiative... to urge international outlawry of atomic and hydrogen weapons.

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Note 3: Kuomintang (KMT), the Nationalist Party or the Nationalists, was formerly controlled by the political and military leader Chiang Kai Shek (31 October, 1887 - 5 April, 1975). More from Wikipedia

Note 4: The Boxer Rebellion, also known as Boxer Uprising, The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or Yihetuan Movement, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901 opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. See Wikipedia on Boxer Rebellion

Note 5: Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 - 12 March 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"). Sun is also referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China (ROC), and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of China. See Wikipedia on Sun Yat-sen

Note 6: Do not confuse this with the Great March (1945) which involved a series of death marches during the final stages of the Second World War in Europe. Here, the Long March (of the Chinese Communist Party) was a military retreat undertaken by the Party's Red Army, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (Nationalist) army. See Wikipedia on the Communists' Long March




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COUNT ON THE STATISTICS  100% Towels (c) Daniel Chittka
Photo © Daniel Chittka

This new section contains some interesting statistics in bribe and corruption, please check back for more as we pile up our numbers!

It's statistics time!  Using n-gram: kickback, graft, bribe and corruption - Comparison of their historical occurrences from 1810 to 2009 A.D.

  The word guanxi (collocation) and meanings of bribe: Deeply rooted, disgusting, sad endings

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ISLAND DISPUTES – FROM A DISTANCE
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For those you who don't have time to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island disputes (links above), you may find the following video, "The economic impact of a war between Japan and China", very enlightening.



© Minute MBA: More from onlinemba.com

Free Pussy Riot!
Free Pussy Riot!

Photo © Igor Mukhin, retrieved from Wikipedia

"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire." John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme

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BBC • Pussy Riot women begin life in prison

11/16 Merkel challanges Putin on imprisonment
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PUSSY RIOT CHRONOLOGY 2013
01/15 Masha's sentence deferment denied
02/01 PR civil claim granted right to appeal
02/07 Pussy Riot files complaint with ECHR
03/06 Ombudsman asks court to overturn verdict
03/08 Protesters detained in Moscow
04/13 PR gets reprimand: parole problematic
04/21 PR defense seeks abolition of conviction
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The Knife supporting PR at Pukkelpop

08/17 Against verdict on PR – Day of Solidarity
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GLUCK ON SOCIALISM AND CHINA Asia (c) Robert Churchill
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Professor Sidney Gluck (c) Sandi BachomI am honored to have obtained Professor Sidney Gluck's (right) permission to allow me to repost here some of his work and interview related to China and socialism. Professor Gluck is professor emertius at the New School University in New York. A classical Marxist, Gluck has been studying China for 60 years in history and modern development. He has lectured all over the U.S. and still welcomes engagement at the age of 94 – photo © Sandi Bachom

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Oh, please do not get me wrong. This new section is not about computers, electronics or any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA, from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of them eventually come into practice? Could there be some insights we could possibly derive, from the linguistics perspective?

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