Table 1: On the dichotomy of politics and public administration, and public participation
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
COLONIAL HONG KONG
DICHOTOMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Separation of politics and administration was first advocated
by Woodrow Wilson in 1887; followed by Gulick's military-like
sequential POSDCORB [2a] in 1920s (as a result
of WWI and the Great Depression); and finally replaced by the
Social Science Heterodoxy in the 1940s – a process that took
over 60 years.
The reassertion of democratic idealism in 1968 called for a "fragmented,
overlapping, and decentralized" authority; public administration
broadened into subfields and eventually moved from Woodrow Wilson's
old hierarchical institutions that fit systems within systems to highly
interdependent administrative institutions showing much reliance on
"third-party partners", i.e. privatization. The government hence
became the manager of these partners.
As a British colony, the separation of politics and administration
was an intrinsic characteristic of colonial Hong Kong. A politically
neutral civil service team was established by the British. Political
involvement for the locals was generally out of the question, at least
not until 1985, 12 years before the Handover.
Instead of officially privatizing, a large number of government
contracts involved within the framework of public services,
e.g. purchse of vehicles for the police, city planning consultation,
and even construction of major infrastructures, were mostly sub-contracted
to British-based corporations – or UK's designated third-party
partners. Actual privatization did not truly began until after the
Handover of Hong Kong in 1997 [2b].
Direct election of Senators first announced in 1913 and
since then Senators were no longer chosen by state legislatures.
This led to 5,000 women suffragettes to march the streets of
Washington D.C. on March 13, 1913; women eventually allowed
to cast their votes in 1920 [2c].
As of today, the election of the U.S. president is still an indirect
election where voters cast ballots for a slate of electors yet
the general public is still able to participate in the popular vote.
Direct election of district councilors began in 1982 as a result
of the British's preparation toward the impending Handover of Hong Kong
to the Chinese Communists in 1997. Indirect election of
legislative council members commenced in 1985, with first direct election
As of 2010, universal suffrage is still pending and the Chief Executive
is still chosen by a relatively small group (approximately 1,000)
of "pro-Beijing elites".
Table 1: On dichotomy of politics and public administration, public participation
Note 2b: Personally, I prefer to use the term "Handover of Hong Kong" and not, as most
commentators would say (in Chinese) "Return of Hong Kong." This is because
strickly speaking, it was the Imperial Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) that actually ceded
in perpetuity the Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the Stonecutter's Island,
as well as allowed a 99-year lease of the New Territories (Lantau Island and
the adjacent northern lands) to the British in 1842 (under the Treaty of Nanking),
in 1860 (under the Convention of Peking), and 1898 (under the Convention for
the Extension of Hong Kong Territory) respectively. The Communist Party of China
didn't really exist until 1921, and the present sovereignty of China did not
appear until 1949. So why "return" in the first place?
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For those you who don't have time
to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island
disputes (links above), you may find the following video,
"The economic impact of a war between Japan and China",
"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire."
John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme
I am proud to announce that
the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates
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Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment
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He likes to study about the
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Oh, please do not get me wrong.
This new section is not about computers, electronics or
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some insights we could possibly derive, from
the linguistics perspective?
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