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 Friday, March 23 2018 1:41am Hongkong Time

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Table 2: On Hoftstede's Cultural Dimensions (selected dimensions) and type of anti-corruption legislation and strategies

Flag of the United States of America
Flag of pre-1997 British Hong Kong
Small Power Distance (PD) American society; members of the society tend to reject social inequality; members of a society are therefore treated as equal as possible (as part of the core values), even in an unequal society.
With a small PD, there is clear rejection against corruption.
Efforts in terms of active education, promotion and community relations may turn out to be futile; investigative operations unwelcomed.
Large PD Chinese society; members of the society find inequality intrinsic to their society; are more willing to accept the inequality; big inequality in power is considered by the less powerful members of the society as normal.
With a large PD, there is a high degree of tolerance of corruption.
Investigative operations are respected and feared; education and propaganda exercises using the mass media are effective in general.
Civil or relatively lenient policies are more favored than the stringent ones, meaning self-governance is crucial.
People are encouraged to report spontaneously – the U.S. False Claims Act 1967 expects citizens to bring lawsuits against those alleged to have defrauded the federal government, and if the plaintiff succeeds, he or she is entitled to keep a percentage of the amount recovered.
Civil laws, False Claims Act 1863 [3], followed by laws protecting whistle blowers, anti-money laundering, income and asset declaration, etc.
Stringent policies based on criminal investigation are more respected than the lenient ones, making operations effective.
People speak up only when asked by the anti-corruption agency or being ordered – the ICAC Ordinance 1974 expects citizens to comply and, if possible, to help with substantiating proof and evidence in criminal proceedings set at much higher standard of proof than in civil cases.
Criminal laws, in particular, the ICAC Ordinance 1974.
The U.S. government and the President respect the independence and freedom of choice of the American people. Anti-corruption work depends on peer reporting, the mass media and various reactive measures.
Society's initiative is considered very important (society-centered). Anti-corruption is geared toward self rejection and neither prevention nor education prevails.
In conflicts between the government and the people, the decision goes to the people – maybe because of the votes?
Hongkongers generally pay respect to appointed Governors. With a relatively large power distance society, anti-corruption depends on proactive measures, high-profile arrests, and heavy anti-bribe propaganda exercises.
Order of the society is very important (public order-centered). Anti-corruption is geared toward close prevention, monitoring, public education, plus strong and proactive operations.
In conflicts between the government and the people, the government often wins – after all, the Governor was appointed by the UK, so who cares?
People generally think individually as to whether they will or will not take or give bribes. Education therefore fails for those who believe bribing/corruption is acceptable (or is a low-risk crime).
Government expect people to behave in order to stop corruption – effective anti-corruption strategies depend on self rejection plus two-way communication between the government and the people.
People tend to accept/believe what the government says. People refrain from taking or giving bribes altogether, if and only if they accept the law (defining corruption as a high-risk crime).
People generally expect the government to pass stringent laws for them to obey – effective anti-corruption strategies are the results of the excellence, efficiency and effectiveness of the agencies.

Table 2: On Hoftstede's Dimensions and anti-corruption legislation and strategies

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Note 3: The American Civil War (1861-1865) was characterized by fraud and bribery on all levels. During the war, unscrupulous contractors sold the Union Army decrepit horses and mules in ill health, faulty rifles and ammunition, and rancid rations and provisions, among other unscrupulous actions. In response, Congress passed the False Claims Act (also known as the Lincoln Law) on March 2, 1863.

Commentary and reflection pages by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA

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Home  •  About this site  •  How did we once fight corruption in colonial Hong Kong?
 •  Historical US administrative thoughts  •  USA versus colonial Hong Kong
 •  Anti-corruption review of Nigeria  •  Procurement monitoring in Nigeria
 •  Syndicated news  •  Usman's blog  •  Anti-graft news  •  Socialist news

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The difference between instant evaluation and improving recognition – November 20
Freddy Krueger revisited: Politically correct education? – October 23
From the evaluator's perspective: Justified conclusions and decisions – October 8
Online and distance-learning degrees from the evaluator's perspective – September 25
The moment fake degrees turned recognized and appraised – September 9

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COUNT ON THE STATISTICS  100% Towels (c) Daniel Chittka
Photo © Daniel Chittka

This new section contains some interesting statistics in bribe and corruption, please check back for more as we pile up our numbers!

It's statistics time!  Using n-gram: kickback, graft, bribe and corruption - Comparison of their historical occurrences from 1810 to 2009 A.D.

  The word guanxi (collocation) and meanings of bribe: Deeply rooted, disgusting, sad endings

Looking for a good book (c) Doug Logan
Photo © Doug Logan
tagged by area of interestBY AREA OF INTEREST
Pragmatics: Politeness trends from the historical perspective of global trade
Computer mediated communications: Social network – Came riding the waves of amazing coincidences
Language acquisition:
A critique on "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies"

Grammatical analysis: "When a linguist stumbled upon a Buttonwood"
Lexicon and the corpus: "John Sinclair's lexical items – an introduction"
tagged by regionBY REGION • Anything AsiaUS Presence in Asia
Communist ChinaNationalist TaiwanHong Kong and MacauJapanKoreaSingaporeMalaysiaPhilippinesPakistanIndiaAfghanistanVietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and MyanmarTimor-Leste and IndonesiaMongoliaNew Zealand and Australia
tagged by topicsBY TOPIC • BiofuelRhino and elephant poachingAmerican movies hit China marketChina Internet censorshipChina's outward FDI opportunitiesGlobal rice yield
Island disputes in Southeast Asia | Senkakus-Diaoyu and historical findings | Dokdo-Takeshima | Spratly, Paracel, Scarborough | Kurils

For those you who don't have time to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island disputes (links above), you may find the following video, "The economic impact of a war between Japan and China", very enlightening.

© Minute MBA: More from

Free Pussy Riot!
Free Pussy Riot!

Photo © Igor Mukhin, retrieved from Wikipedia

"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire." John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme

 More from Amnesty InternationalFree Pussy Riot

How it started – Pussy Riot Prayers, February 2012

08/17 Pussy Riot imprisoned on hooliganism charges
08/17 The only professionals in sight
08/19 Pussy Riot protesters arrested in Marseille
08/20 NZ PM – Sentence 'disproportionate'
08/20 Pussy Riot fear their kids being put in care
08/22 German supporters face criminal charges
08/22 Pussy Riot – it's carefully calibrated
08/23 Russian church-state corruption unveiled
08/23 Putin's secret weapon: The Orthodox faithful
08/24 Putin-nominated watchdog slams convictions
08/31 'Pussy Riot ritual killing', man detained
09/03 Orthodox deacon speaks over verdict
09/06 Putin denies part in 'Pussy Riot case'
09/10 Pussy Riot benefit concert draws 1,000
09/10 Gorbachev says verdict "disproportionate"
09/19 Punk group to transfer to remote penal colony
09/21 Aung San calls on Moscow to release RP
10/01 Sentence appeal delayed until Oct 10
10/10 Katya freed, 2 years for Nadya and Masha
10/16 Masha and Nadya sent to remote labor prison

BBC • Pussy Riot women begin life in prison

11/16 Merkel challanges Putin on imprisonment
11/22 Maria Alekhina transferred to solitary cell
11/28 Tolokonnikova's appeal case goes to court
12/24 Extremist videos appeal adjourned

01/15 Masha's sentence deferment denied
02/01 PR civil claim granted right to appeal
02/07 Pussy Riot files complaint with ECHR
03/06 Ombudsman asks court to overturn verdict
03/08 Protesters detained in Moscow
04/13 PR gets reprimand: parole problematic
04/21 PR defense seeks abolition of conviction
07/26 Parole denied, PR remains defiant

The Knife supporting PR at Pukkelpop

08/17 Against verdict on PR – Day of Solidarity
08/23 PR seeks mitigation of remaining sentence
GLUCK ON SOCIALISM AND CHINA Asia (c) Robert Churchill
Photo © Robert Churchill

Professor Sidney Gluck (c) Sandi BachomI am honored to have obtained Professor Sidney Gluck's (right) permission to allow me to repost here some of his work and interview related to China and socialism. Professor Gluck is professor emertius at the New School University in New York. A classical Marxist, Gluck has been studying China for 60 years in history and modern development. He has lectured all over the U.S. and still welcomes engagement at the age of 94 – photo © Sandi Bachom


Usman Khurshid on Mike McCune's HD Monitor with Paths logo with Maartje van Caspel's Public Space
I am proud to announce that the website is now carrying the technology updates from Usman Khurshid's Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment of Windows and Linux platforms. He likes to study about the latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.

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COMING 2014 – COMPUTING CORPUS Active Network Hub (c) Phil Sigin-Lavdanski
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Oh, please do not get me wrong. This new section is not about computers, electronics or any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA, from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of them eventually come into practice? Could there be some insights we could possibly derive, from the linguistics perspective?


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